Before 1960, yttrium aluminum garnet crystals were colorless and transparent and could replace diamonds. But its refractive index is too low, and the finished product is far less beautiful than diamonds. Later, after producing substitutes with properties closer to diamonds, yttrium aluminum garnet was no longer used to grind fake diamonds.
Characteristics of Yttrium Aluminum Garnet Crystals.
Yttrium aluminum garnet, alumina synthetic spar used to generate laser beams. YAG is the most widely used. The laser oscillation wavelength is 1.06um, the oscillation threshold is low, the conversion efficiency is high, and the physical and chemical properties are stable. It can stimulate both pulse output and continuous output. YAG is an important working material for small and medium-sized solid-state lasers.
The structure of yttrium aluminum garnet crystals.
The neodymium-doped rare earth aluminum garnet has a structure similar to that of a ruby laser, and is also composed of working materials, pump light sources, concentrating cavity and Optical cavity. Different working materials and matching optical pumps are selected to realize continuous operation.
The excitation mechanism of neodymium yttrium aluminum garnet laser.
The neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet laser belongs to a four-stage system, which emits fluorescence and generates laser light from it, which produces laser Nd3+.
The particles originally in the ground state E1 (4I9/2) are excited to the high energy level E4 (energy level above 4I3/2) under the light pump irradiation. Through the non-radiative transition to E3 (4F3/2), Nd3+ in the 4F3/2 energy state has a longer life (about 240us), and is called a metastable energy level. This energy level will accumulate a large number of particles (called the upper laser energy level), and the population inversion distribution will be formed between E3 and the lower energy level (4I11/2, 4I13/2, 4I9/2). When realizing the transition between 4F3/2－4I11/2, 4F3/2－4I13/2, 4F3/2－4I9/2 energy levels, three main fluorescence lines with central wavelengths of 0.914um, 1.06um and 1.35um are produced, among which are The 1.06um spectral line is the strongest. So 1.06um first reaches the threshold to form laser oscillation. Therefore, usually Nd+: YAG laser output wavelength is 1.06um.
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